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世界首富的生意经:最会抄底

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年08月21日 06:51:36
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(  2014年)(7月)(,墨)(西)(哥)(电)(信)(大)(亨)(卡)(洛)(斯)(·斯)(利)(姆)(·埃)(卢)(再)(次)(把)(比)(尔)(·盖)(茨)((BillGates)挤)(在)(身)(后)(,重)(登)(全)(球)(首)(富)(宝)(座)(。
  这)(之)(前)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(名)(下)(最)(大)(的)(资)(产)(—墨)(西)(哥)(电)(信)(宣)(布)(将)(剥)(离)(旗)(下)(部)(分)(资)(产)(。第)(二)(天)(,它)(在)(纽)(约)(证)(券)(交)(易)(所)(挂)(牌)(的)(股)(价)(就)(大)(涨)(了)(10%。7月)(1—11日)(间)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(的)(财)(富)(从)(745亿)(美)(元)(上)(升)(至)(796亿)(美)(元)(,12天)(增)(加)(了)(51亿)(美)(元)(,超)(过)(了)(盖)(茨)(的)(791亿)(美)(元)(。
  除)(电)(信)(外)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(涉)(足)(的)(产)(业)(简)(直)(从)(摇)(篮)(到)(坟)(墓)(。只)(要)(生)(活)(在)(墨)(西)(哥)(,几)(乎)(做)(任)(何)(事)(情)(都)(会)(与)(这)(个)(老)(头)(子)(产)(生)(联)(系)(。
  不)(过)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(的)(生)(活)(非)(常)(节)(俭)(,很)(少)(有)(奢)(侈)(品)(。他)(的)(办)(公)(室)(几)(十)(年)(来)(都)(在)(摩)(天)(大)(楼)(夹)(缝)(中)(的)(一)(个)(两)(层)(水)(泥)(小)(楼)(里)(。墨)(西)(哥)(电)(信)(总)(部)(是)(由)(一)(座)(旧)(纺)(织)(厂)(车)(间)(改)(造)(而)(成)(。他)(住)(的)(房)(子)(也)(只)(有)(6个)(房)(间)(。
  天)(生)(生)(意)(人)(
  斯)(利)(姆)(的)(父)(亲)(名)(叫)(卡)(哈)(里)(勒)(·斯)(利)(姆)(·海)(达)(第)(,出)(生)(在)(黎)(巴)(嫩)(南)(部)(小)(镇)(杰)(津)(一)(个)(马)(龙)(派)(教)(徒)(家)(中)(,是)(土)(生)(土)(长)(的)(黎)(巴)(嫩)(人)(。
  1902年)(,14岁)(的)(卡)(哈)(里)(勒)(为)(逃)(避)(奥)(斯)(曼)(土)(耳)(其)(帝)(国)(的)(兵)(役)(,改)(名)(为)(朱)(立)(安)(,只)(身)(逃)(离)(黎)(巴)(嫩)(,横)(跨)(大)(西)(洋)(,最)(后)(选)(择)(在)(墨)(西)(哥)(城)(定)(居)(。
  8年)(后)(,墨)(西)(哥)(发)(生)(革)(命)(,人)(们)(纷)(纷)(逃)(离)(政)(局)(动)(荡)(的)(墨)(西)(哥)(城)(。可)(就)(在)(这)(个)(时)(候)(,朱)(立)(安)(却)(在)(市)(中)(心)(地)(段)(买)(下)(了)(一)(片)(遭)(抛)(售)(的)(地)(产)(。这)(笔)(投)(资)(的)(回)(报)(为)(他)(赚)(取)(了)(第)(一)(桶)(金)(。
  1940年)(1月)(,朱)(立)(安)(六)(个)(孩)(子)(中)(的)(第)(五)(个)(降)(生)(,这)(就)(是)(卡)(洛)(斯)(。卡)(洛)(斯)(11岁)(那)(年)(,从)(父)(亲)(那)(里)(获)(得)(了)(20美)(元)(的)(资)(金)(,用)(来)(购)(买)(政)(府)(债)(券)(,没)(想)(到)(居)(然)(从)(中)(获)(得)(不)(菲)(的)(回)(报)(。到)(1962年)(大)(学)(毕)(业)(的)(时)(候)(,他)(已)(经)(赚)(取)(了)(40万)(美)(元)(。
  卡)(洛)(斯)(一)(直)(觉)(得)(父)(亲)(就)(是)(他)(经)(商)(的)(导)(师)(,“父)(亲)(教)(我)(要)(有)(勇)(气)(,如)(果)(我)(们)(对)(这)(个)(国)(家)(有)(信)(心)(,那)(么)(任)(何)(合)(理)(的)(投)(资)(都)(将)(获)(得)(回)(报)(。”
  1962年)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(从)(墨)(西)(哥)(国)(立)(自)(治)(大)(学)(土)(木)(工)(程)(系)(毕)(业)(,成)(为)(了)(一)(名)(数)(学)(教)(师)(。实)(际)(上)(,他)(至)(今)(仍)(然)(对)(数)(学)(非)(常)(痴)(迷)(。
  但)(是)(,父)(亲)(朱)(立)(安)(不)(同)(意)(一)(心)(栽)(培)(的)(卡)(洛)(斯)(只)(是)(沉)(迷)(于)(数)(学)(研)(究)(。在)(父)(亲)(的)(要)(求)(下)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(放)(弃)(了)(教)(师)(职)(业)(,接)(手)(家)(族)(生)(意)(,开)(始)(在)(地)(产)(界)(大)(展)(拳)(脚)(。
  26岁)(那)(年)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(已)(成)(为)(身)(家)(4000万)(美)(元)(的)(青)(年)(才)(俊)(。就)(在)(这)(年)(,他)(迎)(娶)(了)(出)(身)(名)(门)(的)(索)(玛)(娅)(·贾)(梅)(耶)(,索)(玛)(娅)(是)(黎)(巴)(嫩)(前)(总)(统)(阿)(明)(·杰)(马)(耶)(勒)(的)(侄)(女)(,她)(父)(亲)(则)(是)(同)(样)(活)(跃)(在)(墨)(西)(哥)(的)(黎)(巴)(嫩)(商)(人)(。
  这)(之)(后)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(成)(立)(了)(卡)(尔)(索)(工)(业)(集)(团)(公)(司)(,广)(泛)(投)(资)(,涉)(及)(的)(行)(业)(从)(采)(矿)(、制)(造)(业)(、造)(纸)(业)(到)(烟)(草)(业)(,无)(所)(不)(包)(。凭)(借)(自)(己)(的)(商)(业)(头)(脑)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(的)(产)(业)(帝)(国)(迅)(速)(膨)(胀)(。到)(上)(世)(纪)(80年)(代)(初)(,他)(旗)(下)(的)(公)(司)(已)(经)(拥)(有)(3万)(多)(名)(员)(工)(。
  最)(会)(抄)(底)(的)(首)(富)(
  20世)(纪)(80年)(代)(中)(期)(,墨)(西)(哥)(陷)(入)(了)(严)(重)(的)(经)(济)(危)(机)(和)(债)(务)(危)(机)(。许)(多)(墨)(西)(哥)(富)(豪)(和)(国)(际)(资)(本)(纷)(纷)(出)(逃)(。而)(此)(时)(却)(恰)(恰)(是)(卡)(洛)(斯)(再)(次)(重)(拳)(出)(击)(的)(时)(候)(。
  就)(像)(1910年)(父)(亲)(趁)(政)(局)(动)(荡)(发)(财)(一)(样)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(开)(始)(趁)(机)(大)(肆)(收)(购)(。这)(样)(的)(冒)(险)(与)(收)(获)(的)(回)(报)(是)(成)(正)(比)(的)(,当)(时)(很)(多)(公)(司)(出)(售)(的)(价)(格)(仅)(仅)(是)(实)(际)(价)(值)(的)(5%。他)(用)(不)(多)(的)(资)(金)(一)(口)(气)(买)(下)(了)(十)(几)(家)(墨)(西)(哥)(的)(大)(公)(司)(。
  大)(肆)(收)(购)(经)(营)(不)(善)(或)(股)(票)(被)(严)(重)(低)(估)(的)(企)(业)(,然)(后)(对)(管)(理)(人)(员)(和)(机)(制)(调)(整)(改)(造)(,使)(企)(业)(扭)(亏)(为)(盈)(。这)(是)(卡)(洛)(斯)(一)(直)(屡)(试)(不)(爽)(的)(投)(资)(策)(略)(。
  在)(此)(之)(后)(,墨)(西)(哥)(经)(济)(开)(始)(复)(苏)(。不)(到)(10年)(间)(,他)(买)(入)(的)(这)(些)(公)(司)(的)(市)(场)(价)(值)(已)(经)(平)(均)(翻)(了)(300倍)(。
  随)(后)(的)(90年)(代)(,他)(又)(迎)(来)(了)(一)(波)(重)(要)(机)(遇)(,也)(就)(是)(墨)(西)(哥)(政)(府)(将)(国)(有)(企)(业)(大)(规)(模)(私)(有)(化)(。卡)(洛)(斯)(从)(此)(彻)(底)(走)(上)(了)(世)(界)(级)(富)(豪)(之)(路)(。
  1990年)(代)(末)(期)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(联)(合)(美)(国)(SBC和)(法)(国)(电)(信)(,以)(20亿)(美)(元)(的)(价)(格)(从)(墨)(西)(哥)(萨)(利)(纳)(斯)(政)(府)(手)(里)(收)(购)(了)(墨)(西)(哥)(电)(信)(20%的)(股)(份)(。卡)(洛)(斯)(还)(得)(到)(了)(墨)(西)(哥)(政)(府)(的)(承)(诺)(,在)(7年)(内)(维)(持)(其)(在)(电)(信)(行)(业)(的)(垄)(断)(地)(位)(。
  在)(此)(后)(的)(5年)(中)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(投)(资)(100亿)(美)(元)(用)(来)(更)(新)(设)(备)(,就)(这)(样)(他)(成)(功)(地)(把)(这)(个)(负)(债)(国)(企)(打)(造)(成)(了)(“摇)(钱)(树)(”。如)(今)(他)(已)(控)(制)(了)(墨)(西)(哥)(国)(内)(90%以)(上)(的)(固)(话)(市)(场)(和)(72%以)(上)(的)(移)(动)(电)(话)(市)(场)(,拥)(有)(4000多)(万)(移)(动)(用)(户)(。
  另)(外)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(庞)(大)(的)(产)(业)(帝)(国)(还)(包)(括)(烟)(草)(、互)(联)(网)(服)(务)(、保)(险)(、银)(行)(、购)(物)(中)(心)(、餐)(饮)(、音)(像)(店)(、汽)(车)(配)(件)(、电)(子)(、钢)(铁)(水)(泥)(、航)(空)(公)(司)(等)(等)(。
  至)(此)(,墨)(西)(哥)(已)(经)(不)(够)(卡)(洛)(斯)(施)(展)(商)(业)(天)(赋)(。2001年)(2月)(,他)(收)(购)(了)(美)(国)(最)(大)(的)(电)(脑)(零)(售)(商)(CompUSA。一)(个)(月)(后)(他)(又)(跟)(微)(软)(合)(作)(,启)(动)(了)(面)(向)(拉)(美)(的)(西)(班)(牙)(语)(网)(站)(。此)(外)(,目)(前)(他)(还)(是)(《纽)(约)(时)(报)(》的)(第)(二)(大)(隐)(形)(股)(东)(。
  最)(终)(,随)(着)(旗)(下)(公)(司)(的)(股)(价)(节)(节)(攀)(升)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(终)(于)(登)(上)(了)(全)(球)(首)(富)(的)(宝)(座)(。2010年)(,以)(535亿)(美)(元)(资)(产)(力)(压)(盖)(茨)(及)(巴)(菲)(特)(,首)(次)(登)(顶)(全)(球)(首)(富)(。此)(后)(几)(年)(一)(直)(蝉)(联)(世)(界)(首)(富)(。
  拒)(绝)(捐)(出)(半)(数)(财)(产)(
  进)(入)(新)(世)(纪)(以)(后)(,已)(经)(60岁)(的)(卡)(洛)(斯)(开)(始)(缓)(慢)(、谨)(慎)(地)(把)(三)(个)(儿)(子)(和)(女)(婿)(安)(排)(到)(核)(心)(公)(司)(的)(高)(层)(位)(置)(中)(,自)(己)(则)(逐)(渐)(从)(一)(线)(隐)(退)(。
  2004年)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(把)(财)(团)(旗)(下)(最)(核)(心)(的)(墨)(西)(哥)(电)(信)(公)(司)(董)(事)(会)(主)(席)(的)(位)(子)(交)(给)(了)(他)(最)(器)(重)(的)(长)(子)(多)(米)(特)(。上)(世)(纪)(80年)(代)(,多)(米)(特)(从)(父)(亲)(的)(一)(个)(小)(连)(锁)(店)(的)(采)(购)(员)(做)(起)(。正)(是)(在)(他)(的)(建)(议)(下)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(把)(目)(光)(转)(向)(周)(边)(国)(家)(,特)(别)(是)(美)(国)(。2001年)(收)(购)(美)(国)(CompUSA公)(司)(的)(操)(刀)(者)(正)(是)(多)(米)(特)(。
  半)(退)(休)(后)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(把)(更)(多)(精)(力)(用)(在)(收)(藏)(大)(量)(的)(艺)(术)(品)(,是)(罗)(丹)(雕)(塑)(最)(大)(的)(收)(藏)(者)(,并)(成)(立)(了)(一)(个)(以)(妻)(子)(名)(字)(命)(名)(的)(博)(物)(馆)(。
  近)(些)(年)(,卡)(洛)(斯)(致)(力)(于)(在)(拉)(美)(国)(家)(开)(展)(以)(抗)(击)(贫)(穷)(和)(文)(盲)(为)(主)(的)(慈)(善)(事)(业)(,还)(在)(穷)(人)(中)(推)(广)(体)(育)(运)(动)(。但)(是)(卡)(洛)(斯)(拒)(绝)(响)(应)(盖)(茨)(与)(巴)(菲)(特)(等)(人)(的)(号)(召)(,他)(认)(为)(捐)(出)(半)(数)(财)(产)(是)(“荒)(谬)(”行)(为)(。他)(认)(为)(,增)(加)(投)(资)(以)(提)(供)(更)(多)(的)(就)(业)(岗)(位)(才)(是)(一)(个)(商)(人)(应)(该)(做)(的)(善)(事)(。
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